As I said in my previous post, it is not possible to compile all Post Independence political events in a small blog that changed India forever. But I will try my best to enlist prominent of all Post Independence political events (in my knowledge). Most of the Important event Pre 70s era is in the previous post. Now let us understand about post 70s major Post Independence political events.
During 1947 partition, Pakistan attained the east part of Bengal region (Bengal partition 1905, as east dominating Bengali Muslims in Pakistan, and West dominating Bengali Hindus in India). After this, Pakistan announced its national language as Urdu. Bengalis were not happy about it. All Bengali movements were annihilated through the army. Pak army viciously killed more than 30 lakh people. No one was allowed to speak or write in Bengali. Later, Chief of Awami League, Mujibur Rehman was house captured. And that’s the point when India helped Bengali Mukti Bahini ( liberation movement) and crushed Pakistan army in just 15 days. On Dec. 16 Dec 1971, Gen. Niazi of Pakistan capitulated with 97,000 veterans. The new country was created as Bangladesh.
It was not a literal “Samaj Seva” by India. When Pakistan army was brutally killing Bengalis, refugee crisis occurs for India. Bengalis feared of death, began to move to India. It was a huge security concern for India. Total emigrants were more than two crores. Indira Gandhi took brave decision to jump in this battle. And because of Indian army and intelligent statesmanship, Bangladesh got independence from Pakistan. And it was an extraordinary performance for Indian army.
2. Sikkim Accession to India 1975:
In 1947, a referendum declined Sikkim’s joining the Indian Union Then a deal was made between India & Sikkim in 1950, under the leadership of current Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. That treaty gave Sikkim an Indian protection status. India controlled its foreign affairs, security, diplomacy & communications, but Sikkim otherwise preserved its executive liberty.
In 1975, the Sikkim people revolted against the monarchy which pointed to its conventional merger with India. Many hold Indian agencies responsible for encouraging violence in the Sikkim. IPS officer Ajit Doval, who is also the present National Security Adviser to PM, went to Sikkim and supervised the whole operation. First chief minister of the state, Kazi LhendupDorjee was helping India during this.
3. The emergency of 1975 By Indira Gandhi:
It started with the case Indira Gandhi facing for election malpractices in Allahabad High Court. She challenged it in Supreme Court later. Supreme Court allowed Indira Gandhi a conditional stay. It enabled her to be a Member of Parliament but not control over the parliamentary procedure. This was probably the first step to the 1975 emergency.
The 2nd step was the Revolt by Jayaprakash Narayan (JP) who asked the departure of Indira Gandhi after the Allahabad High Court findings. June 25, JP announced the nationwide plan of everyday demonstrations in every state.
He asked the police, militia & the people of India to support the Indian Constitution than Indira Gandhi. The emergency is perceived as the result of an orderly mess as India was enduring socioeconomic and political disaster.
Whatever the points his supporters put in her favor, she was blinded by power and embed emergency only to safeguard her political career.
4. Operation Blue Star, Indira’s Assassination and Anti-Sikhs Riots:
This was one of the prominent Post Independence political events that lead to the declination of Nehru-Gandhi dynasty control over Indian Politics. This event was the immediate consequence of political appeasement of the Sikh fundamentalist Bhindranwale by Sanjay Gandhi and led to the sad events of the killing of Indira Gandhi followed by immensely unmerciful 1984 Anti-Sikh riots. Sikhs are still floundering beneath the dark remembrances of those days, and it took a decade to stabilize Punjab politically.
5. The Shah Bano case 1985:
The Shah Bano case was a breakthrough post independence political events in the life of Muslims. It was a fight against Muslim personal law which still is against women liberty. 62-year-old Shah Bano appeared in court demanding livelihood from her husband who had divorced her. The court commanded in her favor. Shah Bano was qualified to maintenance from her ex-husband following Section 125 of the CRP. Few fundamentalist Islamic groups saw this judgment as an attack on Islam.
While the SC did the rational thing, Rajeev Gandhi surrendered to the influence of politics and overthrew the historic chance to strengthen the social situation of Muslim women. He passed the bill for maintaining the status of Muslim personal Law and overturn the SC ruling. If he did not overturn the SC decision, it would have been as memorable as the Hindu Code Bill 1950 for Hindus.
And stupidity, To counter appease the Hindus, Ayodhya gates were opened which leads to Babri demolition, revenge bombings, Bombay riots and the rise of nuisances like Shiv Sena & Dawood Ibrahim D company.
6. Jammu and Kashmir elections Rigging (1987):
Just when the Kashmiris were accepting to be the part of India and all was beautiful, politics bang on. This move produced a profound skepticism among the Kashmiris towards rest of us. This further demonstrated as a forebear to the exodus of the Pandits from the valley,
An exodus of the Pandits from the valley.
Continuation of AFSPA in Jammu and Kashmir and
So called “human rights violation” by the Indian Forces. The Kashmir issue was breathing again.
In 1987 famous Hurriyat leader Syed Shah Geelani was in alliance with BJP and was guaranteed to make government in general assembly election. Prime minister Rajeev Gandhi’s best friend and ally Farookh Abdullah were losing badly there. So at the time of counting, Rajeev Gandhi through Army, arrested all opposition leaders in charge of anti-national activities. Soon after that, Farookh was the winner. The rigging left BJP and Geelani so angry which leads to Hurriyat rise & Kashmir faced a domestic revolt against India.
7. The Killing of Rajiv Gandhi 1991:
Rajiv Gandhi was not the PM when it occurred, but sure he was fated to become because of the miserable performance of the last government. For all his imperfections, he was a progressive leader. Rajeev was the dominating PM who promoted technical (computer technology) revolution in India when some of the conservative opposition leaders were opposing it. He sent Sam Pitroda to the USA to appeal the outsourcing industry to India. Some “Pseudonationalists” (except Subrahmanyam Swamy of BJP) criticize him for the sake of criticism, But had he been alive, India would have much more developed and better.
8. Babri Demolition and Bombay Riots 1992-94:
Babri-Ayodhya dispute case is a very old in Indian Judiciary. Hindus consider that Lord Rama was born in Ayodhya of UP. The same position where the masjid built by Mughal king Babar. So in 1992, a group of “Kar Sevak” under the leadership of BJP leaders, RSS, and its affiliated gatherings attacked the mosque and demolished it in spite of SC order not to touch it. It leads to huge riots throughout the country, mainly in Bombay. There were bomb blasts in city and killing of hundreds of innocent probably does not know about Babri-Ayodhya dispute. Outfits like Shivsena, Dawood Ibrahim, Tiger Menon are the outcome of these riots.
9. Operation Shakti (Pokharan Nuclear test II 1998):
The Pokhran-II (1998) test was the next phase of the operation Smiling Buddha (Pokhran-I) conducted in 1974 under the leadership of Indira Gandhi. In this test, India’s first nuclear weapon experimented. Although Pokhran I demonstrated India’s wisdom in nuclear power, Pokhran II test authenticated India as a complete nuclear weapon state. These two tests were twenty-four years apart. It was due to certain nuclear test prohibition, global pressure and changing leadership in India. Relationship with Pakistan and China was also a major contributory determinant.
Under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, This test is still considered as the most secretive operation in Indian history. Pakistan’s ISI, CIA had no clue till the end of this process. Unlike Demonetization in India, not even people near and dear to Governments could know about it. After this test, there began a nuclear race in Asian countries mainly in Pakistan and China.